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Saturday, February 24, 2018

Ijo Temple

Publish 15-02-2010 08:18:41 by Admin
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A. Overview

Ijo Temple is a name of a temple complex at Bukit Ijo. The name derived from the location of the temple which people call ‘Gumuk Ijo’ (gumuk = hill). Bukit Ijo is the highest hills at Kecamatan Prambanan, Kabupaten Sleman, with its highest peak of 410 meters above the sea level. Ijo Temple itself is at 357,402 m – 395, 481 m above the sea level. This is the highest location among other temples in Yogyakarta. No wonder archeological tourism lovers refer Ijo Temple as ‘the highest temple’ in Yogyakarta.

Ijo complex is on the same hill with other temples such as Ratu Boko, Barong, and Banyunibo Temples. They are located on the limehills of Kecamatan Prambanan. It is estimated that Ijo Temple was built at around 9th century AD. Southwards the temple, tourists can see steep trass-layer valley, yet gorgeous. The soil is indeed infertile, however, bushes and shrub cover the area in rainy season. If tourists turn their view westwards, they can see Adisutjipto International Airport.

B. Feature

Ijo complex consists of 17 building structures and are divided into 11 terraces. The first to the eleventh are story terraces streching west to east. The terrace structure is an acculturation of both Hindu and local culture which is depicted in the structure of temple’s megalithic place of service called punden berundak.

Of the eleven terraces, the last or the highest terrace is the most sacred area in which there lies the main temple with three perwara (accompanist) temples. The structure of the main temple’s complex and the three perwara temples have been restored. The other—the first to the tenth—terraces are in identification and built-up process.


The three perwara (accompanist) temples

Visitors of Ijo complex can enjoy the uniqueness of Shiva temple by seeing the Lingga-Yoni archeological remains inside. Lingga-Yoni inside Ijo Temple is quite big and is one of the biggest in Indonesia. According to Dra. Sri Sugiarti (Head of Ijo Temple Unit), the size of Lingga-Yoni in this temple is a manifestation of how much people worship Shiva and Dewi Parwati (Shiva’s wife). In addition, Lingga-Yoni refers to the characteristic of man and woman, so that in this extent they represent fertility and the beginning of life. Worshiping Shiva through Lingga is commonly refered as lingga kultus.

The structure of Linga-Yoni in this temple is quite unique. The cylindrical lingga stone stands on a niche section (Yoni) with a river flow on its end. The water flow is supported by dragon’s head and turtle carving. According to Sri Sugiarti, the worship of Shiva was probably performed by pouring water on the Lingga and let it flow to the end of Yoni niche. The water flow of the worship was then considered sacred.


Lingga-Yoni Inside Ijo Temple

In addition to Lingga-Yoni, tourists can witness several statues and relief on Ijo Temple. One of them is the statue of nandi (cow) which in Hindu mythology is considered as Shiva’s vehicle. Other statues are the statues of Agastya, Ganesha, and Durga which previously were ornaments on the temple’s niches and now they are kept in Kantor Balai Pelestarian Peninggalan Purbakaa (BP3) Yogyakarta. Meanwhile, the relief in Ijo Temple depict the figure of flying man and woman. This relief depicts Shiva and Dewi Parwati as a sign to expel evil spirit.


The Relief Inside Ijo Temple

Other uniqueness can be seen on the remains of one of the temple’s foundation curved on lime-hill stones. Unlike the building structure of common temples which consist of andecits, one of the foundation of Ijo complex uses rocky hill as its foundation by carving it. The rock-hill foundation can still be seen, but the building structure has not been restored.


Temple’s foundation curved on rocky hill

Other valuable remains are the two stone inscriptions found among the ruins of a temple at the eight terrace. The first inscription is one meter tall, inscribed with ‘Guywan’ which is pronounced ‘Bhuyutan’ by Soekarto, meaning ‘meditation. Currently, the inscription is kept in Jakarta National Museum. The second inscription is smaller, around 14 cm of height and 9 cm of thickness, containing 16 repeated curse spells. The spell says ‘Om sarwwawinasa, sarwwawinasa’. This inscription does not include the year but from palaeographic point of view it is estimated that the inscription is from the 8 to 9 century AD. (Andrisijanti [ed.], 2003: 65).

C. Location

Ijo Temple is situated at Bukit Ijo, Desa Sambirejo, Kecamatan Prambanan, Kabupaten Sleman, Provinsi DI Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

D. Access

Ijo Temple is situated 28 kilometers eastward of Yogyakarta. For easier access, tourists can reach Ijo Temple by taking Prambanan Temple route by Transjogja (Route 1A or 1B) or by taxy. From Prambanan Temple, tourists go southwards (right side from Yogyakarta or left side from Solo) by ojek or taxy. The route to Ijo Temple is a high road connecting Yogyakarta-Piyungan. After 15 minutes of journey, you will see the direction sign to Ijo Temple. Follow the sign until Ijo Temple complex on the ascending sidewalk at Bukit Ijo.

E. Ticket

Visitors of Ijo Temple fill the guess book for free. But Dinas Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata (Cultural and Tourism Department) of Kabupaten Sleman plans to charge retribution to the visitors.

F. Accommodations and Facilities

Ijo Temple guard-post provides data or information about the history of Ijo Temple. The officers will gladly explain the discovery, restoration process or the history of the temple. Should you need an inn or a restaurant, they are available at the temple surroundings.

(Lukman Solihin/wm/52/04-09)

(Translation by Apri Widiastuti/trns/04/02-10)

__________

Bibliography

  • Andrisijanti (ed.). 2003 (cet. 1). Mosaik Pusaka Budaya Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: Balai Pelestarian Peninggalan Purbakala Yogyakarta.
  • “Candi Ijo, Candi yang Letaknya Tertinggi di Yogyakarta”. 23 April 2009: http://www.yogyes.com.
  • “Candi ijo”. 23 April 2009: http://gudeg.net.
  • “Candi ijo”. 23 April 2009:  http://wijna.web.id.



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